History and success of female filmmakers in Africa and the African Diaspora


It is truly evident in the history of world cinema that incredibly talented African and Diaspora filmmakers are making great innovative films. In addition to questioning old cinematic recipes, they are also using the superior art of cinema to create and implement new perspectives on their people and the world. The career of black women filmmakers began in 1922 when Tressie Saunders, the director of black women, made the exemplary film ‘A Woman’s Error’. It was the first attempt at the time to decolonize the gaze and place the film in the black subjectivity of women. However, after a long history of suggestive work today, women directors have had a long and slow journey to the director’s chair today, where only a handful of black women filmmakers have been able to break down the racial barriers in Hollywood.

In addition to Hollywood, many black women in Africa and the United States have been able to highlight their respect for world cinema. In fact, a filmmaker like Julie Dash (originally from New York City) has long won the Best Cinematography Award at the 1991 Sundance Film Festival for her name “Daughters of the Dust”. On the other hand, Cheryl Denye Liberia has gained worldwide fame and reputation in the film ‘The Watermelon Woman’ (1996). It is the first African American lesbian film in the history of world cinema. Another woman filmmaker, Safi Faye from Senegal, has several ethnographic films that have achieved international fame. In 1976 and 1979 he received several awards at the Berlin International Film Festival. There are also independent black women like Salem Mekuria in Ethiopia. She produces documentaries based on her native Ethiopia and African American women in general. In 1989, Euzhan Palcy became the first woman to direct a major Hollywood film, ‘A Dry White Season’. Despite this success, it is true that the state of affairs for African American filmmakers is not good at all. Yvonne Welbon has attempted a documentary called “Sisters in Cinema” to examine why and how the history of black women behind the camera has been made in Hollywood.

“Sisters in Cinema” is the first and only documentary in the history of world cinema to attempt to explore the lives and films of black inspirational black filmmakers. To remember the success and colossal achievement of the black. A filmmaker of all ages, Yvonne Welbon’s 62-minute documentary “Sisters in Cinema” was created in 2003. Movie XX. from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present day he tried to pursue the careers of inspiring African American filmmakers. The first documentary of its kind ‘Sisters in Cinema’ has been seen by critics as a visual history of the contributions made by African American women to cinema. “Sisters in Cinema,” they say, has been a great job that pays off. a tribute to African Americans who made history against all races, barriers, and social bloodshed.

While interviewed, filmmaker Yvonne Welbon admitted that when she planned to make this documentary, she barely knew any of the extraordinary female directors of African-American director Julie Dash. However, in search of these inspiring directors, she found a film directed by African-American woman Darnell Martin, who began to explore the corners of Hollywood. In addition to that film ‘I Like That’, he only found films that are produced and distributed by African Americans. That said, white filmmakers, producers, and distributors were inspired by the Hollywood monopoly to travel the path of independent filmmaking. Surprisingly, here she discovered a series of films directed by an African-American woman outside the Hollywood studio system, and so she found her sister in the movies.

Within the 62-hour documentary, the careers, lives and films of inspiring women like Euzhan Palcy, Julie Dash, Darnell Martin, Dianne Houston, Neema Barnette, Cheryl Dunye, Kasi Lemmons and Maya Angelou are on display. feature films, single-archive films and photographic work, and video production by filmmakers. These images provide a voice for African American women directors and serve to shed light on the success story of black women filmmakers who have been in hiding for a long time.

Most recently, the eighth annual African American Women’s Film Festival was held in New York City in October 2005. Another notable event was an extraordinary feature film and documentary and short films made by African American women filmmakers like Aurora. Sarabia, fourth-generation Chicana (Mexican-American) Stockton, CA, Vera J. Brooks, Chicago producer Teri Burnette Socialist filmmaker Stephannia F. Cleaton, award-winning New York City journalist and business editor at Staten Island Advance, Adetoro Makinde, first-generation Nigerian American director, screenwriter, producer and actor, among others. Most recently, from February 5 to March 5, 2007, Black History Month was celebrated by the Lincoln Center & Separate Cinema Archive Film Society. The center presented “Black Women Behind Lens”.

A wonderful documentary “Black Women Behind the Lens” celebrates the uncommitted love-loving cinematic work created by a group of brave African American women. Equipped with limited determination and poor spirits, these women filmmakers pledged to speak the truth to power while offering alternatives to the stereotypical images of black women found in the mainstream media. They turned to Guerilla filmmaking, confronted the artistic rebellion in the long-held network of Hollywood, and confronted old perceptions of cinema to build new perspectives on art for their people, heritage, and the world. Theologians, sociologists, women writers, directors say it’s good to know that African and Diaspora women filmmakers question old cinematic recipes and love to create their own perspectives on cinema.

However, although many women in Africa and the United States have been able to pursue successful careers in filmmaking, the barriers are particularly embarrassing. The problem, Elizabeth Hadley, president of Women Studies at Hamilton College in Clinton, is not particularly about black women making black films, but about marketing, distribution, and funding. As a result, most of these women are finding money independently and are working to cut budgets. However, having said and done, it is gratifying enough to know that at least some of these women dare to decolonize the Hollywood gaze and place their films in the black subjectivity of women. These women should be welcomed when they want to communicate the legacy, heritage, emphasis on the history of black people by emphasizing their experience!



Classic Hollywood Romances. Celebrating a Rainbow of Life with a variety of love tones.


So, have any of us come to think of the most memorable classic romances in Hollywood over the decades? As a passionate admirer of Romanticism and an alluring Hollywood musician, I can definitely feel my pulses on the silver star screen of a bygone era adorned with tremendous love and first love. Be it the touching saga of star-crossed lovers during the war under the beloved arc of the American Rick’s Café’s “Casablanca” arc or the wonderful melodrama “Gone With The Wind” based on Margaret Mitchell’s great Civil War sales (which defined the word “Hollywood blockbuster”) for each of them. I have an insatiable hunger.

How can I forget the magic emotions of a never-ending love affair in a book called “Love Affair” in which a French and American woman (Charles Boyer and Irene Dunne, respectively) fall in love in her arms? Or remember Cary Grant and Deborah Kerr’s “An Affair To Remember,” where men and women cross an ocean in a boat and fall in love, only to be reached in a few ways. In the Empire State Building, New York (unfortunately it won’t happen)? Unforgettable to me is the most precious transient love affair between a passionate love saga of the past, “Roman Holiday,” a disguised princess and a beautiful American journalist (Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck, respectively).

When you want to think of candlelight romances, when you reflect fairy-tale saga of love or cross-star, you would mark the romantic chemistry between the lover and her lover behind these truly wonderful, terrifying and touching tales. love. It is interesting to note that the success of these successes in Hollywood Romanticism is due to the basic elements of Hollywood (especially music), the classical elements of Romanticism, and a degree of sentimentality, yet its nature is quite sophisticated.

The 50s and 60s were sweet days of classic Hollywood romance: ethos, pathos, happy endings, heartfelt farewells and romantic love scenes, along with performances featuring some of Hollywood’s most heartfelt events Gregory Peck, Audrey Hepburn, Grant Bergman, C Gable, Vivien Leigh and Marilyn Monroe were the basis of all young hearts. I would prefer not to try this article as the main story of cinematic history: the best films of all time belong to the genre of classical romance, because it is the work of an encyclopedia and not of man. These days, you’re sure to find them online. So I would limit my writing to discussing only some of the landmarks of the cinematic past, time, and masterpiece that are behind the production of these productions. Once again, it comes from the invaluable love I feel for movies.

Today, Warner Bros., Twentieth Century Fox, MGM and Columbia (Sony) are some of the pioneers in Hollywood film production and distribution, with Paramount Pictures, the longest-running film studio in the United States, respectively. Production and distribution of films in the United States. There were wonderful times when the Hollywood studio system produced classic films that offered something precise and hard to the storytelling that left something to the imagination of the audience. While this was true from the early thirties and thirties to the “seventies,” in those days audiences were fed certain standards of discretion that were fed and used cinematic devices so that they could not explicitly say so. Without meaningful passionate stimuli, it’s easy to use compelling stories and characters, wonderful dialogue, high production values ​​(cinematography, editing, film composition, punctuation, sets, and costumes). The stars of those days gave some of the most famous rounds of all time, including “Gone With the Wind,” “West Side Story,” “Casablanca,” “Roman Holiday,” “Remember My Fair Lady” and “An Affair.”

In the 40s, 50s and 60s, combined, the biggest silver screen legends like Marlon Brando, Humphrey Bogart, Spencer Tracy, the irresistibly beautiful Cary Grant and the super charismatic Gregory Peck, Katharine Hepburn and Bette Davis were also created. Ingrid Bergman, Sofia Lauren, Audrey Hepburn and Greta Garbo and Marilyn Monroe are furious. Interestingly, did you know that the AFI has recently ranked the greatest love stories of the first century of American cinema, which “Casablanca” achieved with the number one position? “Gone With The Wind” and “West Side Story” are next to some of America’s greatest classic reels.

Because of the mythical cinema and the mythical status they deserve for their great romance, few would dare to discuss the position of these three films because they are the greatest novels ever on the silver screen. It is noteworthy that among the protagonists full of romantic protagonists in each of these films are powerful moments of the screen, which certainly become meaningful and personalized fantasies among the fans of these guilty romances. Anyone who has seen “Roman Holiday” will never forget the phenomenal scene between Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck in Peck’s hand with “Mouth of Truth” (La Bocca della Verità), according to the stone face of Rome. to legend, if you lie he will bite your hand. In the film, he is missing when he pulls out his hand and causes Hepburn, Ann’s disguised princess, to scream hysterically. The chemistry between the two on stage is so contagious that the audience never identifies the film as a love story with the distinction of the classic elements of romance.

On the other hand, there were times when Hollywood created memorable and fascinating music, like the legendary “Sound of Music” (1965) “Singing in the Rain” (1952). Considering the great musical films of all time, they are films that immerse themselves in the hearts of fans of eternal romance. Who can forget Julie Andrews ’sweet and hostile song in Julie Andrews’s“ The Sound of Music, ”where she teaches seven children“ Do re mi ”notes or sings of her individuality as she sings“ I have individual confidence ”. does he play with the kids in the song “These are some of my favorite things”?

For the record, the actor’s album was nominated for the Grammy Award of the Year album. The film, meanwhile, won an Oscar and is one of the most popular music ever created. “Singing in the Rain,” on the other hand, starring Gene Kelly, Donald O’Connor and Debbie Reynolds, is wit-filled as a satirical comedy, and is one of the most elegant elements of the music scene of its time. There’s a wonderful dance scene in Gene Kelly in the film: “singing in the rain,” while twisting an umbrella, splashing between puddles and soaking the skin. “My Fair Lady,” is another classic romantic comedy woven into the mold of a musical with electric performances by Audrey Hepburn, Church Doolittle, the young Cockney girl, and Rex Harrison with Henry Higgins. an arrogant and irritating teacher of phonetics. Together they turned on the screen with an unforgettable adaptation of the musical music My Fair Lady based on George Fair Shag’s play Pygmalion.

In later years, to be more precise, from the nineteen-seventies and nineties onwards, there was a marked transition from coil romanticism to sophisticated black-and-white and black-and-white elegant styles, from art and suggestive to sweeter, meaty and. the bloody world of lovers, rocking with long kisses and scenes in love, with immeasurable energy and emotion. What could be a better example of the new cosmos than the one shown by lovers in “Love Story” (1970), one of the most romantic films ever made? Director Arthur Hiller’s romantic tearjerker is about a passionate couple with a tragic ending. It is a heart of love story of life. Considering that Paramount was the most successful film of the time, the film received seven Oscar nominations for the Picture Best Award. Another, from the 90s, “Forrest Gump” (1994), revives the subtle emotions of love, turning the story into the most touching moments of love that Forrest (Tom Hanks) and he has ever experienced throughout his life. In the film, however, we take a broad look at the tumult of American history seen through the eyes of Forrest’s charming symphony, gifted with some classic scenarios with very unique scenery and depth. Once again, in the 90s, we see Richard Gere and Julia Roberts ’tremendous passion and chemistry on screen in“ Pretty Woman ”(1990), a love story about a wealthy business.

I found the chemistry between the lovers so natural and compelling that it transcends the whirlwinds of a romantic comedy and is remembered as a fairly classic film in the genre of romance. Towards the end of the 90s, the world of Hollywood romance was blamed for the blockbuster of all time in the fictional love story of “Titanic” (1997), Rose (Kate Winslett) and Jack (Leonardo De Caprio). Social classes who are in love with several different classes on a 1912 girl trip on the Titanic. Although the film is based on the historical sinking of the giant Titanic, the crossroads and beauty of the film lies in the evil tale of their love, the soulful music of the film, and the memorable soundtrack of the film. On another note, though with the same intensity of hobbies and passions, he unfolds the love story between Noah (Ryan Gosling) and his love Allie (Rachel McAdams) in his book “Notebook” (2004). Adapted from Nicolas Sparks ’1996 romantic novel, it has been one of the most moving romances of its time.

Last but not least; Let me share with you the feelings of witnessing another classic film outside of Hollywood, even though they were so appealing on screen, in a harsh tone, that immediately reminded me of the evocative features and subtleties of the famous Hollywood census. The film is nothing more than an Italian “La Vita E Belle” (“Life is Beautiful”) directed by Roberto Benigni. In 1998 he won 3 Oscars. The film was based on the story of the violence he endured. For the concentration camps of World War I, the film’s nuances transcend the horrors of the concentration camp with some of the most beautiful romantic sequences in world cinema.

Do you remember the scene where Guido follows his bride Dora to the greenhouse and the scenes that come from there? Well, instead of showing what they do there, the scene slowly disintegrates into a shot from the same greenhouse, this time only a little boy is playing in it. The implications are obvious, the device serves to advance the plot a few years after encountering the topic “five years later …” and leaving the viewer’s imagination to the imagination of the viewer. With an amazing script, the film is an unforgettable fable that demonstrates the undeniable spirit of love, family and imagination. Undoubtedly, this, along with the joys of love and life, has been the main foundation behind all the successful romantic classics in Hollywood history. So be it in “Casablanca” or “Notebook”, both “cupid” and “life” rule! In fact, all the romance scenes are a celebration of life in its many shades. Touched by the arrows of Cupid, she becomes more and more beautiful and transcendental.



Henry Polic II (1945-2013)


Henry Polic II (February 20, 1945 – August 11, 2013) was an American screen, stage and voice actor and was best known on Webster as Jerry Silver.

In the 1980s, Henry Polic II participated in numerous game shows as a well-known guest. His most common guest slots were at various Pyramids demonstrations, often in the $ 25,000 and Dick Clark Pyramid and versions by producer Bob Stewart of John Davidson’s film Pyramid. Henry Polic also did many other works; as well as the 1986 game show Double Talk, the Q eye of the 1988 revival pilot, and ads to share with Dean Goss and Johnny Gilbert for $ 100,000 in the Pyramid. Specialties in politics include regional and foreign accents, baritone singing and ballroom dancing.

From the early 1990s until his death, Henry Polic was best known for his first British voice in Batman’s Scarecrow: The Animated Series. At first, he had a deep tone of voice, but eventually raised his voice to fit the role. Henry Polit, a guest at Florida State University, attended the Theater’s Production School for the production of Christmas Carol. In 1996 he worked with Scrooge. In addition to Henry Polic’s game show, he also had a double Talk from 1986 to 1987.

Veteran actor Henry Polic II, who starred as Nottingham Sheriff in the TV series Mel Brooks, and also died in Things Were Rotten and Jerry Silver Webster, died at the age of 68 after a long period of cancer.

Henry Polic was a popular gambling game. He frequently appeared in the $ 25,000 pyramid and with his appearance, the $ 100,000 Pyramid, which Polik hosted with Dick Clark. Henry was also a host of game shows, and also directed the 1986 ABC Double Talk. In addition to being a famous game presenter, Henry Polics played Dracula on the NBCs Monster Squad in the 1970s series and served as a guest on numerous shows: Mork & Mindy, Alice, Eight Is Enough, Sheena, Murder, She Wrote, saved the bells. In addition to Batman’s work, Polic also gave voice to the TV series Smurfs and several other series, such as Dukes and the Midnight Patrol, as well as the Happy Days gang.

At Webster, Henry Polic worked with Jerry Silver, a confidant and secretary of Katherine (Susan Clark), who had 54 episodes in the entire series, and from 1983-1989 he worked for ABC and the union.

Born in Pittsburgh in 1945, Henry Polic went to the University of Florida and earned a master’s degree in acting. After graduating, he moved to Fort Riley in Kansas, and later joined the Missouri Tent Theater and Miami’s Player’s Theater, to name a few. In the early 1970s Henry Polic moved to Los Angeles and made his television debut in 1975 as Nottingham Sheriff, as well as the comedy When Things Were Rotten, which he presented in Richard Things Gautier Robin Hood.

Henry Polic also had film credits, 1978’s Joan Rivers, 1977’s Beau Geste Last Remake, 1980’s Oh, God! Book II, then 2000 Bring home and finally all you need for 2001. Henry Polic has appeared in 70 local and regional productions, such as the global premiere of the Sister Act music Broadway hit. This began the role of Monsignor Howard. Other theatrical credits for politics were the global production of the 1776 Civic Light Long Beach, West’s Never Gonna Dance Music Theater, Putting It Together, Is This Your Life, and “A Couple of Guys”. Credits for Henry Polic’s directing include the Fools for the Actors Cooperative in Hollywood, as well as the Ventura Rubicon Theater; The world premiere of Jim Geoghan’s film Two Gentlemen of the Crown; The world premiere of Nebraska’s production; both New York and Los Angeles Brine County wedding productions; and broke the record at Dracula’s box office.

The polit was a host of celebrity and celebrity auctions that helped raise more than $ 2 million a year for charity, such as the Foundation’s Concerns Research Study, the Adam Walsh Foundation, the American Diabetes Association and the Leukemia Foundation. Police gave a camera acting class at Emerson College Center in Los Angeles, and also taught a theater course at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. Henry Polic was also a member of The Fund Actors and a member of the organization’s western board. In addition, a scholarship memorial fund was created in the name of Henry Polic in the state of Florida, which provides funding to help produce new annual plays for Theater Schools.

Henry Polic II is a very common face among film, television and theater role-playing audiences. He is also known for his work as a theater director. Henry Polic was passionate about his work in theater. Some of his acting credits included Webster’s regular comedy series roles and classic TV series. She has also had numerous guest stars, including Sheena, She Spies, Cosby, news radio and Profiler episodes. In addition to acting credits, Henry Polic also has film credits. All you need is Beau Geste’s Last Remake, the old clue, Bring Him Home, Oh God, Book II, Drum and Rabbit, Joan River’s comedy.

The following is a detailed list of Henry Polic’s most famous works:

• CREDITS – Stage appearances

  • Room Service, 1987
  • A Christmas Carol Scrooge, Theater School, Florida State University, 1996
  • Politics also appeared in The Last Pad; Boys in the Band, Boysin the Band; Broadway production; fantastic; The man from Mancha; Pal Joey and 1776, Is This Your Life? Civic Light opera Long Beach; Tamarind Theater.

• CREDITS – Stage correction

  • The Country of a Salty Wedding, 1996

• Film appearances

  • Captain, Beau Geste Last Remake, 1977
  • Scavenger Hunt, 1979
  • (To himself) Oh, God! Psychiatrist 5, Book II, 1980
  • Tarlow Stephen, Double Problem, 1992
  • James / MacBeth, Scott’s Play, 1999
  • Bring Him Home, 2000
  • All You Need Mr. Etheridge, 2001
  • Valette, 2002
  • Button the King, Will I Lie You You ?, 2002

• TV appearances – series

  • (TV debut) Nottingham Sheriff, and When Things Were Rotten, 1975
  • Regular, Summer and Fall Bert Show, 1976
  • Yo Yogi, 1991
  • Monster Gang, Count of Dracula, 1976-1977
  • Jerry Silver, Webster, 1983-1987
  • Combustion, 2004
  • Morton and Hayes, 1991
  • Voice of, The All-New Scooby and Scrappy-Doo Show, 1983, (animated).
  • Talk show, host, Celebrity Double Talk, 1986
  • Children’s show for Tom and Jerry for the 1990s
  • Underlying ad, The Pyramid of 100,000 dollars, union, 1992
  • Potsworth and Company, 1990
  • Hollywood Chaos, 1989
  • Super Password, 1994
  • Body Language, 1984
  • Alice, 1977

• with

  • Mark Steiner, Scruples, 1981

• Movies

  • I Yabba-Dabba Do, voice, 1993 (animation)
  • Doc Thompson, Animal Planet, Old Drum trail, 2000

• Pilots

  • Heck’s Angels, 1976
  • McNamara’s Band, Schnell, 1977

• Special

  • 1970s Survival and Perhaps Bump into Happiness, 1978
  • Voices of the Wolf Leader and Tracker, The Christmas Special The Smurfs (animation), 1986
  • Yellow Ribbon Bob Hope’s Party, 1991

• episodic

  • Man, The Bionic Woman, 1976
  • Failure, Walter, 1977
  • The Thief of the Gem / I Want to Get Married, Marty, 1978
  • “The War Between Bradford,” Eight Is Enough, 1978
  • Dr. Phillips, 1979
  • Hooray of Bulgaria, 1979
  • Donald, The Incredible Hulk, 1980
  • Pierre, “Caller / Suitability Marriage / Girls / Witness the Prosecution,” The Boat of Love, 1980
  • Redding Jay, “Maltese Airline Bag”, Eight Is Enough, 1980
  • “Guinness on Tap”, 1981
  • Bors, “The Perfect Volcano / Senarra,” 1981
  • Frederick, “The very rare of Wines”, 1982
  • Francois, Burglars of Beauty, Lacey and Cagney, 1982
  • Randy Turner, “We Know When to Hold Them, 1983
  • My Way, Ivo, E.R, 1984
  • Gun Shy, 1983
  • E.R., Dr. Raja, 1984
  • Stern Roy, Hotel, Illusions, 1985
  • Guest, The 100,000 Pyramid of 1985, 1985
  • Dupree Alan, “House Fires Burn,” Murder, She Wrote, 1986
  • Bishop Arthur, “The Old Grand Lady,” Murder, wrote, 1989
  • “Something New, Something Old,” Brothers, Union, 1989
  • Voice of the City Mayor, “For Who the Bells Klang: 2” (animation), Tale Spin Union, 1990
  • Vincent Val, “Hair Today, and Gone Tomorrow,” was out of space in 1991
  • “Daffy Dicks”, Maitre’d, Hayes and Morton, 1991
  • Darkroom, 1982
  • The voice of The Scarecrow / Jonathan Crane, Fear Nothing, Batman (animation; also called the adventures of Batman and Robin; also Batman: The Animation Series), 1992
  • The voice of The Scarecrow / Jonathan Crane, Fear of Victory, Batman (animation; also called The Adventures of Batman and Robin and Batman: Animation in the Series), 1992
  • The voice of The Scarecrow / Jonathan Crane, Dreams inside the Darkness, Batman (animation; also called The Adventures of Batman & Robin; also Batman: Animation series), 1992
  • Mr. Bainbridge Saved by the Bell, “Snow White and the Seven Dorks,” 1992
  • The voice of The Scarecrow / Jonathan Crane, Harley, on Batman’s Holiday (animation; also called The Adventures of Batman & Robin; as well as Batman: Animation in the Series), 1994
  • Detective School, 1979
  • The voice of The Scarecrow / Jonathan Crane, Lock-Up, Batman (animation; also called the adventures of Batman & Robin; also Batman: animated series), 1994
  • Verne Jules, Eighty Arms Around the World, Mighty Max, 1994
  • Richard, The Crisis of Three Carat, profile, 1999
  • Fantasy Island, 1978-1981
  • Sheena, Wild Thing, Syndicate, 2000
  • Rabbit Test, 1978
  • Superman, 1988
  • Strange New Couple, 1982
  • Osborne Michael, She Spies, Gone Bad, Union, 2003
  • Henry Polic was the first man, the voice; Golden Palace, The Adventures of Don Coyote and Sancho Panda (animation), union; Yo! Yogi voice; (Animation); and as a voice, SuperTed (animation).

• Television work

  • Additional voices, Scooby and Scrappy-Doo (animated), ABC, 1979
  • Additional voices, The Smurfs (animation; also known as The Adventures of Smurf), 1981


In short, Henry Polic II, a television personality who died at the age of about forty, died at the age of 68. The actor began his career with ABC in 1975, where he worked as a Nottingham Sheriff. He then starred as Dracula in the 1970 series Monster Squad and later as a guest actor on a dozen shows, including Mork and Mindy, Saved by the Bell, Alice, Eight Is Enough, Sheena and Murder.

Having played various supporting roles, Henry Polik was a well-known face on television from the 1970s until his death. In addition, in his time Jonathan Crane / Scarecrow in Batman: The main voice of the animated series, he achieved the main status of children and adults.

Giving feedback, people’s opinions were very similar when it came to making Henry Polic II’s voice something extraordinary and he was generally thought to be a very good actor. In addition to these notable credentials, Henry Polic was a well-known contestant on the game show. It appeared in the pyramid for $ 25,000 and later editions. Throughout his career, Henry Polic was never limited to a particular or specific public profile, and, attributed to supporting roles, rarely appeared in similar categories on television and film more than a dozen times.

Unfortunately, the actor’s life and career were short due to illness. Cancer was the end of Henry Police. Henry Polic died at the age of 68 in Sherman Oaks, California, and his sister, niece and two nieces survived.



Create Websites

With all the tools that are now available on the Internet, it has become much easier to create websites than in previous days when you have to learn to use HTML code. In fact, with just one simple phrase like “How to type my websites” in the search engine search bar, many tools are provided on your computer screen. All you have to do is choose the one that suits you and you can build your website right away and set it up on the internet for an hour or two. Of course, learning more about HTML isn’t a good idea yet, but you don’t need to build a website these days. What you need to learn is the first step in building and running your site.

When thinking about building your website, you need to think about how you can set it up on the Internet. You actually need two things to do that. One is domain name and the other is web hosting. A domain name is a web address used by you or others to access your website. A good example of a very popular domain name is “”, and if you want to make your popularity popular, you have to remember that it is attractive and easy.
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It will be a personal web hosting company that provides your personal space on the Internet. They have servers that will host your website. Their servers will be a place to provide your space for uploading content, articles, images, products and other files to your website. Without a hosting service and domain name, your website will not be visible on the Internet.


Crypto prices

The network fee has to be paid, but what if it doesn’t need to be paid? With the adoption of SegWit and its full approval, with the launch of Bitcoin and tariffs, Bitcoin users (BTC) can save half a billion dollars in network costs.

Perry Werfy’s latest report “calculated” nearly half a million blockchains to calculate how much BTC and MB were saved thanks to these technologies.
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As a brief reminder, SegWit (Segregated Witness) is an optional protocol update for blockchain networks that was first launched in 2017 and basically means “separating transaction signatures.” It is useful for cost, speed and scalability. In the case of a scaling method called classification, this indicates that there are more than three outputs in a transaction, so you have to deal with two different sides at once.

In seven years, from January 2012 to March 2020, 205,941 BTCs were paid to miners – which can be classified. That’s $ 2 billion at current BTC prices.

The report claims that if everyone uses Transaction Batching, more than 20,620 BTCs will be saved by Bitcoin users. Instead of BTC 205,941, users had to pay 185,321 BTC at a 10% discount. This (no) amount stored by BTC through this category is currently worth $ 202 million.


Poetry by John Keats – A celebration of beauty, classicism, and romantic richness


Being an ardent lover of poetry, being more precise romantic poetry, I have always been fascinated by the feelings I have for the world of the poet. Romantic poetry, pictorial quality, imagery, mysticism, absorption in the beauty and life of nature, classical features and, above all, the celebration of beauty and aesthetics – have many attractive features. and sophisticated readers of all time. And it is amazing that this pictorial quality, the sensual enjoyment of nature, the artistic beauty and the richness of the images spread by the romantic poets somehow continue to inspire us after so many years!
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When we come to think of romantic poets, the name John Keats is one of the best flowers of the Romantic Movement. English poetry is in love with one of the greatest words. His verses tend to have subtle images and a mixture of different feelings over and over again, creating musical effects in which the artist was conscious.

Keats’ time and Keats’s literary influence:
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The Romantic era, according to history, was a time when almost the whole of Europe was strongly shaken by the ideas and ideologies of the French Revolution. The important poets of the time were greatly inspired by the personal and political freedom of the revolution in the eighteenth century. Breaking the bonds of 21st century artistic conventions. These ideas and ideals at the time sparked “Wordsworth, Coleridge’s young passion,” “sparked Scott’s anger,” and “worked like Byron’s yeast” … However, Keats differs from his contemporary and literary poets. was the excitement that the image gathered around the revolution and the incidents were not directly represented in his poetry.
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As such, it is worth mentioning that parts of ‘Hyperion’, ‘Fallen Hyperion’ and ‘Endymion’ prove that Keats has been affected by political problems, but it is certainly not as significant as the works. Wordsworth, Coleridge or Shelley. His poetry, on the other hand, was the embodiment of his vision of beauty, in nature, among other things, in human acts of chivalry and in the fascinating tales of ancient Greece. This was the deepest and innermost experience of Keats’s soul, which he expressed in a simple way in his “Ode to the Greek Birch”:
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“Beauty is Truth, Beauty is Beautiful,” which is what you know and need to know on earth. ”
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Following his poetic growth, researchers know that he was educated almost exclusively by English poets. Early in his career, the influence of Edmund Spenser, especially his ‘Faerie Queene’, was instrumental in igniting his imaginative genius; The love of sensory beauty, the luxury of fantasy, and the answer to the charm of the natural feature of Spenser’s poems were to be recounted in Keats’s poems. In the following years, critics mentioned the influence of Shakespeare, Milton, and even Wordsworth in his poems. The advent of words in Shakespeare, on the other hand, alluded to an expression in the 1817 volume of his book ‘Endymion’, which was also greatly influenced by the spirits and dictionaries of the old English poets, especially those of the Renaissance. Having said that, it’s worth noting that Milton’s “Lost Paradise” has a very impressive impact on his “Hyperion”. At the same time, the researcher has also been the subject of poetry research.
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Today’s critics say that what distinguishes Keats’s poetry from all romantic poets is that his poetic genius fell under romanticism and matured in the sun of classicism. The true classicism of his ancient Greece, which shows the classical Basque language, is very present in his poems. What’s more, it blends harmoniously with the romantic scent of his poetry, which achieves a wonderful fusion of romantic impulse and classical seriousness. This statement holds a lot of truth when we consider his more mature Odes, because Keats notices our sense of form, purity, and ordinance. His Odes have the spontaneity and freedom of imagination that characterize the poetry of the Romantic era. For example, in the book ‘Ode to a Nightingale’, when the poet describes the song of the bird as the voice of eternity and expresses an intense longing to die in the hope of joining eternity, there is this romantic suggestion of the poet’s sensual enjoyment. these lines:
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“It has the same thing that happens in those times / The magic of magic, the foam / that opens up in dangerous seas, in places without wood and land.”

However, the poet immediately joins the lines:
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“Forlorn! It’s a very word like a bell / To you back from you to yourself to sing” … that’s the perfect example of a romantic passion fused with the classic retina. In all of his adult Ode, ‘Ode to Nightingale’, ‘Ode to Urc Grecian’, ‘Ode to Melancholy’ and ‘Ode to Psychy’, it is said that he was charged with discipline over his earlier poems. Take out the romantic richness, filled with the Hellenic clarity that characterizes Greek literature.
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Poetic alienation and the subject of melancholy:

Although beauty and mutability are said to be recurring themes in Keats’s adult Odes, critics have stressed that he was somewhat “obsessed with a close attitude of joy and sorrow, enjoyment, and pain”. Some insisted that, in search of her beauty, she had become a fugitive, leaving aside the realities of life. In the poems of ‘Isabella’, ‘Lamia’, Santa Agnes Eve ’and others, her imagination plays with the romance of love, the elements of the Middle Ages, the cruel and mysterious young lady, the‘ child of mercy ’. and the witchcraft of the magical world. However, all this is his feeling of alienation as a creative way of thinking, which takes on a deeper tone and meaning in his later works, namely his Odes. During his journey as a poet, he tried to harmonize the “life of sensations with the life of thought” by today’s scholars. As he has seen in his sleep and in his poetry, in his reluctance to enjoy his first feelings, later pain is inevitably a strong longing that surrenders to the joy and beauty of life. life expectancy and despair. Therefore, the lines:
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“His hand of joy is never on his lips / Tender verb.” Keats knew that the joy and beauty of the earth is transient, and from that transience arose the melancholy so typical of his poems. Melancholy, he says, “is associated with beauty / the beauty that must kill.”
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Acceptance of the stoic acceptance of life is achieved in addition to despair, through a deep spiritual experience. As his “Ode to the Greek Urko” indicates, “” This generation of old age will be among the ruins / others than ours …
These lines cannot come from the pen of a fugitive. For me, the mystery of the life he treats as a poet was deeply thought out, not as a political rebel or a philosopher. Scholastic research is still struggling to emerge new perspectives on his poetry. As a reader, I would be delighted to explore the romantic richness and richness of the images in his poems!
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Some useful resources to help me write this article:

Muir, Kenneth (ed): John Keats: A Reassessment (Liverpool 1957)

Ridley, M.R .: Crafts by John Keats

G.M. Bowra: A romantic imagination

Middleton Murry: Studies in Keats

Dr. S. Sen: John Keats: Selected Poems, Hyperion and the Fall of Hyperion



Great-Pendence Day


Last Saturday was the fourth of July. The town I live in was 5 miles away before the Main Street parade started, due to cancer or something like that, and my wife and daughter came out early looking for a cure. Standing on our porch, I called him goodbye, greeted him and saw him come out, and then I turned around and entered our house. As soon as the French door behind me closed, he asked me what I should do with two hours of freedom. Unfortunately, or fortunately, I felt the long-standing feelings of my childhood. I felt like I was: just on vacation.
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The decision to stay at home was mine, of course, so I could only blame myself for the isolation I felt from society. I sat on the rug in our living room and listened and looked. The sound of forced air from the floor air, the tick of Grandpa’s clock and nothing else. I should go with them.
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The photo of the frame hangs in the living room of the ski trip we took in Whistler (Canada) and this photo caught my attention. That trip was the last time I stood and skied, so I always smiled every time I saw the picture on the radio. Seeing that I was alone on Independence Day, my family was gone, I was living my life and making memories without me, I left the ice and walked away from my favorite photo. What was I doing? Staying home alone? On Independence Day? Really?
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The right thing to do in situations is that I’m often stunned, but what I felt right in my living room was the equivalent of a two-handed shovel. Running through the morning routine, I filled a locker room with coffee, grabbed our digital camera, and went outside as if trying to catch up with friends with a guy.

My car is a beast, but it has a tug of war to take my Segway with me. Although Segways are mobile people, I use mine as a wheelchair. It’s the same as the rest of the Segway: two wheels, balance cars, a standing positioning deck and two hands placed on a high vertical edge – if I didn’t put one of those big blue stickers on my front. I could use it where I needed to go without even making a mistake in walking someone lazy. I took it to planes and elevators, hotels, shops and restaurants, and that morning I took it to the back of the car, in a hurry. The independence that Segway gives me is impossible when I used a wheelchair sitting in our barn.

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My mood eased as I approached my family. As traffic was already blocked off the sidewalk lane, I had to park and use my Segway to get to the starting line of the 5K race. What a humanity! The streets already had chairs, blankets, refrigerators, chalk drawings and hundreds of people sitting in their front row seats and waiting for the parade to begin. No one saw me speeding through the very side streets. As soon as I reached Main Street, I slowed down, took a walk, and took a look. There was a platform where the runners were ready to start the race. Most wore white event T-shirts, all standing and the group seemed to be in the morning sun, bending over, stretching, twisting and talking. As I walked down the center line of Main Street, I stood between the rails of the watchmen on either side of the street, turning at the end of a lane to what looked like animated bowling alleys, listening to the amazement and amazement of fascination. .
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“Look at things,” “What is it?” “That’s very nice,” “I want one,” and “Hey, sir, can I try it?” These calls came from both sides of the empty street. I was alone in the middle. What can I do? Stop it! Enter my Segway as a wheelchair? I thought about how the first bike rider felt when his huge front tire rode down a dirt road for another century. The difference for me was that I couldn’t go down and walk. But they could not know that. I kept going and looked forward without my father’s family.

In the next block I heard someone complaining.

“What is it? Is it good to walk?”

It’s not the first time I’ve heard the question. It came once when I was visiting my daughter at USC, another time at the Omaha (Nebraska) Olympics, and at one time, I was in Segn, near the finish line of the Portland-to-Coast race, in Seaside, Oregon. . Each of these other times has felt terribly with the callers, seeing the stick, the cane, and my walk to walk “like us”. I have become indifferent to such comments. I can barely hear them. If those calls were the price of being with my family from home, I was happy to pay. I continued without saying a word, but I had a gesture: That’s it! I thought so. I’m running down the main street.

I found it before I started running. Actually, they found me. They ran to me, and pointed me to where I should be to watch the race, and then they disappeared. What cost me the most is that I was with them. Life is not just about living. I took a thousand photos that day. When they pass the pictures, I know they won’t see my only photo. So what? Dads are never shown in the photos taken. Instead, they will see what I saw that day: our family together on Independence Day. How sweet is that?



Caro – History of the Nation’s Survival of the Old Sugar Factory


Michigan carpentry and XIX. The century was intertwined. The wooden barons passed the state after the hurricane, as they did in England and New York, loading the world’s last magnificent white pine stand. The villages that were dying in their hometown, hundreds of miles of waste fuel, swamps caused by erosion, and the shocks left by the heritage that left their mark on the astonishment. Wooden villages across the state, one of which was named Caro, Cairo, Egypt, were named for explicit reasons to combat extinction.

If he had to have the same opportunity to find a place in the century, he needed industry. The mayors and other leaders of the state threw one or the other. In Caro, they talked about sugar farms from Bay County. An entrepreneur named Thomas Cranage built a sugar factory in Essexville on the outskirts of Bay City to replace another lumber yard. The results of Cranage’s experiment sparked excitement. It quickly replaced the darkness that was entrenched in the hearts and minds of the leaders of the rigid community on the back.

Cranage traveled to Nebraska, Utah, New Mexico and California and witnessed the process and spoke with technicians and then hired them. He then founded the Michigan Sugar Company and, avoiding the mistake of many entrepreneurs, saw that he had the right capital to survive the despair that goes along with new initiatives.

In addition to good planning, the Michigan Sugar Company also benefited from the good weather. The first success in the history of the state was the first season for the collection and processing of sugar beet (in the talk on the beet sugar industry). Farmers collected an average of 10.3 tons to make 32,047 tons of sugar per 3,103 acres. The sugar content of beets averaged 12.93%, with eighty-two percent of the factory producing 5,685,552 pounds of sugar. As a result of the 12.93% sugar content, each tonne of beet was 258.6 kilos of sugar. From then on, the new sugar factory packaged 169 pounds, which was sixty-nine percent of its sugar recovery, which was a great result for the first campaign.

Among Carola’s leaders, the main business activity of Tuskola County was Charles Montague. The people waited for Mr. Montague to find out what he had thought in the sugar debate.

Montague was fifty-two years old when Michigan began to open up to sugar perspectives. He has already been successful in various fields such as banking, agriculture, carpentry, merchandising and manufacturing. In addition to owning and operating the town hotel, he ran the local telephone system and electric lighting company.

If a sugar factory were to be built in a town, it needed a famous citizen to ship it. Someone’s involvement in this would create a strong desire – enough to shake dollars from hidden places – so that farmers can raise it well. the beets could have been rich people. However, there was no need to create investment in the Caro community in Michigan. In Detroit, ninety miles south, eager investors sought mature opportunities and closer to home in the nearby town of Vassar, a man who lived in a man, never stopped looking for an opportunity.

Richard Hoodless lived in comfort in Vasser, in a small town called Mathew Vassar, the founder of Vassar University. For many years he traveled the roads of Europe out of concern for the English as a buyer of agricultural products. Thirty years earlier he had seen his beet fields in Germany, which brought prosperous factories close to villages, factories that hired farmers, bought supplies and paid taxes to local governments, and generally caused the tide of sustainable prosperity to rise, with no citizens directly or indirectly. the opportunity to immerse yourself in a treasure trove of beet fields.

Hoodless sought ways to double the success of German farmers. As luck would have it, an ad appeared in the Chicago newspaper, August Maritzen, a young architect who had recently married, took the time out of his honeymoon to promote the business of a German manufacturer whose name most Americans could express. only if they first filled their mouths with marble. He was A. Wernicke Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft of the German Hall. Hoodless responded to the ad, and in return, Maritzen meant a sum of $ 4,000 (more than $ 80,000 in modern dollars) that Hoodless could generate enough interest to create a factory in Caro.

On the one hand, Hoodless was in Charles Montague, a man of great wealth, as evidenced by the control of local telephone and lighting companies that loved both opportunity and technology in the nineteenth century. New features of technology at the turn of the century, and on the other hand, in Wernicke, eager to build a factory in the United States. For help, he turned to two friends, Fred Wheat, who had been associated with Montagues for many years through marriage and John Wilsey. Wheat was a lawyer, his wife was Maria Montague, sister of Charles Montague.

Hoodless then convened a citizens ’committee that became the forerunner of the Caro Sugar Company. Committee member Fred Slocum was also the editor of the Tuskola Magazine Ad and helped promote the idea in his news columns. A farmer from the Caro neighborhood, the Essexville experiment was signed by Charles Montague and his partner, banker John Seeley, became aware of the excitement they were earning at the coal mine. He was vice president of the Sebewaing Coal Company; An organization led by Spencer O. Fisher. He also participated in the Michigan Sugar Company in Essexville and later became president of the West Bay City Sugar Company.

After Montaga picked up the ball, he went to the final area without considering the competitive budget for the construction of the factory. In fact, Wernick’s representative, Max Schroeder, was on an excursion to Detroit on the evening of January 1899 for Montague and Seeley. The night was cold. The work done in the decision was hot. It was feared that other towns would have drilled Caro, diverting investment dollars away from Toskola County. Time was of the essence.

For a week, the city held its breath as the trio clashed with major Detroit financiers. Daniel Gutleben, in The Sugar Tramp-1954, reported that the organizing committee of Caro had received a telegram that the capitalist investment had been invested in the factory and that Wernicke had awarded him a contract for its construction. The “supreme” pandemonium prevailed according to Tuskola’s announcement. Seeley arrived alone on the train on Tuesday afternoon to tell a story, one that lives on in Caro’s memory, passed on to each subsequent generation and recorded in the chronicles of Daniel Gutleben. The story of how Charles Montague’s company has convinced some of the city’s big wheels and vendors is convincing at Michigan’s second beet sugar factory.

No one questioned the ability of Wernicke to build a plant four thousand miles from its base in a foreign country, where language, customs, and economic conditions differed markedly from the native countries. There was no experience in beet sugar factories or on the board of directors no one anticipated the need to hire corporate officers who had no such experience. After all, Wernicke was a sugar expert, claiming more than 200 projects, including one recently completed in Australia. No matter, Wernicke, excited to be doing the amuck, signed a contract that the new factory would split 500 tons of beets every day for at least thirty consecutive days, three cents a pound of sugar into six pounds per pound. per pound, retail.

A new factory, even if someone lacked the inconveniences of building a factory on a foreign land built, could have run 500 tons a day on its maid’s journey. Avoid construction problems always caused delays; proper tuning would deviate some cutting ability from a few weeks and sometimes a few months. In the mix the factory gangs were accustomed to chasing the plows or falling trees, questions with axes, motors, diffusers, vacuum pans and evaporators rather than perfect harmonies. A year earlier, builders at the Essexville factory had lost their guarantee of producing three-and-a-half-pound sugar for fifteen cents and paid for it with an expensive settlement for the courts, which Wernicke was unaware of or rejected at one point. unauthorized trust. In addition, Wernicke agreed to fund $ 300,000 at an estimated cost of $ 400,000.

It was a very budget for investors in Caro and Detroit. It improved over time. The town council, as an additional induction, purchased 100 acres of land on two plots, one of which belonged to Charles Montague, and gave it to the owners of the factory, one of whom was Montague. The Caro Water Company enjoyed the budget, free of charge, when it offered up to 500,000 gallons in the spring.

Caro did so, as a result of Montague’s energy and Hoodless’s ambition, and the will of a people who would not stay, found the beneficiary of a factory paid for by foreign investors. Prior to the original name of The Caro Sugar Company, the organizers had a par value of $ 10 with 30,000 shares that formed the Peninsula Sugar Refining Company on January 30, 1899. In August of the same year, the capitalization jumped to $ 500,000 and jumped again in February 1902 when it rose to $ 750,000. The last increase occurred in September 1902, when it rose to one million dollars, with a value of $ 100,000 per share.

The fundraiser was Charles Bewick of the Detroit industry; a few years later he invested in the sugar factory in East Tawas and Henry B. Joy, in 1905, president of the Packard Motor Car Company. Joy and her family members invested in sugar factories in Michigan, in Alma, Croswell and Bay City. His brother-in-law and founder of the Truman Newberry Packard Motor Car Company, he invested in Caro, and along with Joy, became a director of the company. Newberry’s fleeting reputation in 1918 would be the successful seat of the U.S. Senate in Michigan, defeating Henry Ford, another tycoon seeking the same position. (Newberry’s popularity lasted longer on the upper peninsula of Michigan. They named a town called Newberry to remember his father’s reflection, to cut down all the leaves he could find, and to turn them into coal.)

David Cady and Gilbert Lee, owners of the large wholesale food distribution in Detroit, controlled nearly five thousand shares. Gilbert Lee went to the chair of the presidency, and Henry Joy took over as vice president.

A few years later the Sugar Trust came to town and everything changed. The American company Sugar Trust was referred to in every newspaper as the Sugar Trust, in 1901 and 1902 it moved to Michigan on its back and began absorbing beet sugar factories. The defunct Charles Montague assembled the parts that made up the company with his energy and units. Also missing was John Seeley, his friend and partner. Richard Hoodless started it all, he never got on the list of shareholders.

By 1903, the list of shareholders reflected some of the major names in the Sugar Trust. Among them was Charles B. Warren, a lawyer for the American Sugar Refining Company, whose 22,001 shares had a 1904 shareholder list. The second shareholder in the ranking was Boston B., Boston, Massachusetts, a director of the American Sugar Refining Company, which held 15,667 shares. He would rise to the presidency of the Sugar Trust four years later after the death of Henry O. Havemeyer, its founder. Third was Lowell Palmer, an executive of the American company Sugar Refining, which held 10,126 shares. Together, the three controlled 48% of the Peninsula Sugar Refining Company. An interesting feature of the shareholder list was the lack of names of Caro residents, with the exception of a few sugar factory employees.

The American Sugar Refining Company, scattered in the daily press, prone to federal lawsuits for monopolistic tendencies and violations of the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act, was highly regarded by 13,000 shareholders who enjoyed a steady stream of dividends. Since 1894. The most underrated aspect of Sugar Trust was that companies under its jurisdiction would require it to produce high quality products at low cost and to do so by providing expert consultants who traveled from plant to plant distributing technical information. and staff, and inspect facilities.

But in 1899, the town of Caro’s interest was not in the realm of high finance or corporate philosophy, but hundreds of workers who needed planes, food and clothing, and other necessities and luxuries, to call the coffers to all registrars. town. Men, money, equipment and building materials were dumped into the hermitage. Forty-eight loaded equipment plus six million bricks and a thousand ropes of stones arrived in a row. Three hundred workers, earning fifty cents an hour from bricks, compared to fifteen cents from workers and five cents from electrician schools, created a bustle of activity when the snow melted in April and ended on October 23 with Superintendent Georg Bartsch, an expert in sugar manufacturing and crystallization. , won the workshop.

The performance guarantees of the new beet sugar factories worried those who dared to give in to the problem, and soon Wernicke would be screwed. The plant described by Gutleben, although it removed materials from American preferences, was the main one in the design of the factory. It consisted of four four-effect evaporators made of iron, combined with a combined heating surface of 8,911 square meters, two pans with a diameter of 9-1 / 2 feet x 13 meters in height, 753 square meters, and centrifuges using steam holes. for the final cleansing of the sugar. 700 cubic feet of refrigerated foot sprays and six refrigerators were installed on the floor of the bed, which improved rapid cooling. Nine water boilers equipped with mechanical stokers provided an adequate steam supply. The concrete flooring, by the standards of luxury day Michigan factories, distinguished luxury from the mud and clay beneath the factory.

Two notable differences between the American design factory and the German design resulted in an immediate race. The first was that the American leadership style called on the superintendents who coined the phrase, “manage your foot, not your seat,” to call a field marshal who was remotely commanded by the German method, who wanted to send lieutenants to gather information and dismiss and command management wisdom. .

Moreover, the European method of management required a great deal of secrecy between management and those who managed it, and moreover the technicians reserved their knowledge with themselves, with what they knew with their children, or with those who paid handsomely for instruction. The classified plant perfectly complied with the European management style. Therefore, the Caro factory consisted of several rooms or departments; communication between them was commissioned and the number of workers needed to operate the factory was increased. Messengers roamed the rooms sending orders and information, not always timely enough circumstances. The arrangement would later make it difficult to expand the plant; The expansion of one area usually occurred at the expense of another. The Kilby-built factories, created by Joseph Kilby of Cleveland, Ohio, many of the first sugar mill builders, conversely provided enough space to increase capacity in the next two generations of development by adding only five times less structures or bases.

Wernicker’s record, however, in view of its practicality and correctness. From March 1 to October 23, 1899, the German company sent a large part of the factory to Germany. After seven months in a foreign country that was relatively new to designing and building a complete operating facility in another country, it became the first of eight beet sugar factories built in Michigan in 1899. It then became the second factory to be built. In Michigan, after Essexville. The rules were in place in 1899 and a hundred years later, Wernicke’s achievement is positioned as a monumental achievement. Not only the usual ups and downs, the factory also operated and in some cases was better than any starting point that started that year.

Due to the loss of records, specifically the sugar content of treated beets, only the results of the first campaign can be calculated. Nearby Bay City reported thirteen percent sugar and eleven percent elsewhere in the state. Then, applying an average of twelve per cent to the crop harvested in Caro, the new factory has recovered 66% of the sugar in beets, compared to 61 per cent recovered in Benton Harbor, but in Alma the recovery has been less than 72%.

While the results have been encouraging, Wernicke has not failed to meet the three conditions set out in the contract. In fact, there have been failures that would quickly go into the woods. First, the factory did not slice 500 tons 30 days a day, as guaranteed. Second, the cost exceeded three cents per pound, and third, the factory was not ready for beets on September 1, 1899, as ordered. In addition, according to the company, the sugar produced lacked salinity and was lost a lot in the process. Wernicke then learned the litigious nature of Michigan’s pioneering sugar manufacturers.

The company may have considered Wernicke’s exceptional effort, unless the executives anticipated operating losses, as the State of Michigan decided to suspend payment of sugar generated from January 1, 1899. provided that a fee of one hundred euros per pound of sugar produced in Michigan was paid, but the High Court audited it constitutionally, then the decision was upheld by the State Supreme Court. The decision was a disaster for investors, with hundreds of percent of operating costs. The U.S. Supreme Court refused to consider the case, and the lower court’s decision allowed the wrong decision. The unearned money was $ 40,436; minimum displacement with approximately $ 65,000 loss.

When it came time to take Wernicke to court, the company’s directors chose Charles Evans Hughes as their legal attorney to serve as the Supreme Court’s chief justice. While preparing for court day with Wernicke, Hughes learned the German language and the beet sugar industry from the ground up so that he could cross paths with German engineers who appeared as expert witnesses. According to James Howell, a former superintendent of the Caro factory, who wrote a detailed account of the history of the Caro factory, Hughes spent a month in the Caro factory, exploring all the baskets and baskets, until he became an expert in its designs and functions.

According to Gutleben, the next court case was the loss of a $ 300,000 bond paid by Wernicke at seventy-five percent of the contract price for Wernicke’s construction of sugar factories in the United States. Howell, written six years before Gutleben, gave a slightly altered account. Wernicke said he sent $ 150,000 and forgave $ 125,000 in the construction contract.

Shortly afterwards, Oxnard Construction Company appeared in Caro due to changes in the plant. There was no material in relation to the original construction. The Americans made centrifuges, while American industrial tool companies, often referred to in the industry as “Amtool,” replaced German designs. A major change had nothing to do with the original design flaws. The removal of the sugar from the molasses was the addition of the Steffen process. The main problem at the time was the high proportion of sugar that escaped the manufacturing process and the days ended mixed with molasses. It remained in the syrup from the manufacturing process.

The financial results for the second year were impressive. Centrifuges and Steffens ’new processes (in an industry called Steffen’s House) proved worthwhile. Seven million pounds of sugar passed through the warehouse, a product of thirty-two thousand tons of sugar that contained 14 percent sugar. The factory extracted 243 pounds of sugar from each drop of sugar, a 35% improvement in the first year. Steff’s new process not only recovered the twenty tons of molasses sugar obtained daily, but also the molasses sugar left over from the previous crop.

Henry Oxnard founded the ruling dynasty in Caro

Henry Oxnard did more than redesign a factory when he applied his efforts to the problems at Caro; Not only did the Caro factory create a management dynasty that would permanently affect the U.S. beet sugar industry. Ten years earlier, in 1891, Henry Oxnard had hired the best and best technicians of the day to be hired from Germany and France to arrive in the Americas, forming the nucleus of a gang engaged in the preparation of American sugar. from beets.

After completing his first basic stint, Oxnard began serving in the mechanical engineering department. For general responsibilities for construction management, he turned to A. P. Cooper, Ames, a pioneer at the Nebraska factory, who worked as an assistant engineer. Cooper immediately went to the Caro plant and put in place a plan to effect the changes. He launched a set of writers who befriended Caro. It was Daniel Gutleben who would one day rise to the top of the factory operators, and later as a chronicler of beet history.

With the top two levels well positioned, Oxnard saw the location of a team of promising labs that lacked the right training but achieved the right level of satisfaction.

Charles Sieland, a thirty-six-year-old German native of Oxnard, oversaw the changes, except for an economic reward that ruled out the tendency for his countrymen to retain information. Henry Oxnard adopted the philosophy of information sharing. Caro, in his view, was not only a factory but also a university. A long list of factory technicians and managers began Caro’s careers under his tutelage and then shared the knowledge with others as they moved from factory to factory. One of them was William Hoodless, the son of Richard Hoodless himself who started throwing the ball to win a factory in Caro. A few years later, he took charge of all factory operations and soon accepted the presidency of the Pennsylvania Sugar Refinery in Philadelphia.

In 1906, the Sugar Trust consolidated most of Michigan’s sugar companies into the Michigan Sugar Company. The name of the first company to build a sugar factory in Michigan was revived. The new Michigan Sugar Company included Alma Sugar Company, Bay City-Michigan Sugar Company, Peninsular Sugar Refining Company, Carrollton Sugar Company, Croswell Sugar Company and Sebewaing Sugar Company. At the time, the Trust through a shareholder candidate had a large majority in the Blissfield Sugar Company built in 1905 a year earlier, and the East Tawas Sugar Company, which failed in 1904 as a business, was fined. It operated in Chaska, Minnesota, manufactured by the Sugar Trust in Chaska, Minnesota, for the next sixty-six years. The Carrollton Sugar Company also had an unsuitable Saginaw Sugar Company. It was also another factory built by Kilby. Sterling, Colorado, from 1905 to 1985. Carlos Warren took over the presidency of the Michigan Sugar Company. 1925.

Until 1920, the sun was on the Sugar Trust. After numerous attacks including the U.S. Department of Justice and the Interstate Trade Commission, the American Sugar Consolidation Company invested many of its components among private investors, thus freeing itself from the eyes of the Michigan Sugar Company. Board of Trustees. The post-trust board of directors was made up of Michigan residents. He was in no way associated with the president of the Sugar Trust, with the exception of President Charles B. Warren, whose interest was first as ambassador to Japan from 1921 to 1922, and then to the ambassador of Mexico in 1924. He lost his application to become U.S. attorney general in a politically charged Senate vote in 1925 due to an aversion to Warren’s Sugar Trust. His desire for a role in the public sector took him away from the office of president. William H. Wallace, the vice-president, 3d vice president and general manager. The first and second vice presidents fell for some hard blows on the list of shareholders who were not involved in day-to-day activities.

Caro survives time and change

Thanks to James Howell, Caro’s first director in 1944, who prepared a history recorded in 1948, it is known that Caro began accumulating beets in a fabulous yard in 1937, an important step after beets were delivered to the factory. while the needs of other crops were to supply beets as they were needed.

During the period 1928-1937, the Caro factory, like almost every sugar factory in Michigan, suffered the adverse effects of the Great Depression. However, from 1937 to the present, Caro reported continuous improvement in terms of modernization and expansion. White sugar centrifuges and a new pulp depot were added in 1944. A centrifuge is a device designed to separate sugar crystals in syrup, focusing on a screen that is filtered through the syrup (usually about 1,200 rpm) with a sufficient speed (usually about 1,200 rpm). encourages drilling in syrup in a round basket. The sugar crystals remain in the basket in syrup to recover too much of the sugar that is regenerated during the process. These and other changes have resulted in an average daily rate of expansion of more than 3,600 tons per twenty-four hours per 500 tons per day in the original design. As a result, the factory is relatively small compared to others in the United States. twice as large and four times as large.

If Caro has the secret to surviving for more than 100 years, Oxnard’s rebuilt factory has indeed remained so for many years and continues to do so as challenges arise, gaining the support of his community and changing when opportunities and opportunities come together. forced change. With things like that, the oldest surviving beet in the United States hangs in the fast-paced industry.


HOWELL, James, A History of the Caro Plant of the Michigan Sugar Company, Unpublished History of the Caro Factory, May 1, 1948

GUTTLEBEN, Daniel, The Sugar Tramp – 1954 pages Price: Members: In Stock For the purchase of sugar factories by the Sugar Trust p. 177 About the organization and results of the operation of Sebewaing Sugar, printed by Bay Cities Duplicating Company, San Francisco, California

MARQUIS, Albert Nelson, editor, The Book of Detroiters, pp. 465-468, A.N. Marquis & Company, Chicago, 1908 – About the biography of Charles B. Warren

MICHIGAN ANNUAL REPORTS, Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan:

It was introduced by the Peninsular Sugar Refining Company in 1904 and the Michigan Sugar Company in 1924

MOODY, John, The Truth about the Trusts, Sugar Trust In 1902 he began buying beet sugar companies and paying dividends between 1892 and 1900.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. In the United States District Court in the southern district of New York

United States vs. American Sugar Refining Co., et al. Page 1674, Petition Exhibition 1494

Copyright, 2009, Thomas Mahar, All rights reserved



Snack events: a tremendous history behind your favorite foods


Quick … what’s your favorite snack?

If you answered with OREOS® milk or RITZ® cracker and cheese or

maybe you’ll even have a MOON PIE® and then just name it a snack

millions of people around the world. Do you know how some of these

have the popular snacks got their start? Many of these tasty clothes

a horrible history. Check out the following great snacks:

The invention of MOON PIE®

You didn’t know the bet was just produced by the actual MOON PIE®

Chattanooga Bakery in Tennessee. But no one knows for sure how

MOON PIES® were invented. Presumably in the early 1900s, a

Earl Mitchell, sr. (a baker’s salesman) was on a visit

one of the company’s stores that caters to coal miners. Mr. Mitchell

he asked the miners what they would like for a new snack. They told him

they wanted something for their lunch box. That would be a good thing

fill them. Mr. Mitchell asked the miners what size they wanted

it was this snack that a miner saw rising to the moon. He put his hands up

and shaped the moon. He then said, “just that size.”

Mr. Mitchell returned to the bakery. There he saw the staff covering up

graham cookies marshmallow, then put on the side of the window

to harden. Mr. Mitchell asked them to put two of these cookies together

and dressed in chocolate, and so was MOON PIE®

guess what! Towards the end of the 1950s, MOON PIE® was so popular

the bakery had the money to produce it.


The main ingredient in this famous snack is figs, of course, FIG

NEWTONS® cookies are fig-shaped cookies filled with a juicy fig

jam. But, it wasn’t until it was possible to create these sweet candies

1891, when they invented a special apparatus to make them. art

then there was no way to put fig jam around the cake or pie

jam. James Henry Mitchell invented this special funnel inside

funnel. The inner funnel gives a jam. External funnel

It creates a tube-like dough and creates an endless rope

The sweet figs we know as FIG NEWTONS®.


The times were tough in the Great Depression in the United States. few

people could afford luxuries or weird food, but everyone wanted a great thing

cracker. In 1934, the National Biscuit Company (now Nabisco) was tried

recipe after recipe, they developed that they would know what they knew

The best, favorite cracker on the market. They gave it a luxurious name, though

affordable, cracker RITZ® Cracker (probably because it’s anything

glamorous, elegant or quirky was then called “ritzy”). He was very popular

everywhere – from the humblest house to the elegant Waldorf-Astoria

The hotel, which remains a regular feature on the menu.


The OREO® cookie was born in 1912, but no one seems to know it

sure where the name came from. Since then, more than 362 trillion of them

they have eaten the wonders of cream-filled chocolate, turning them into

the most famous cookie in the world if 362 trillion were OREO® cookies

the moon piled on top of each other and they would reach back

more than five times Now there are a lot of cookies!


Did you know that KOOL-AID® is Nebraska’s official drink? KOOL-

AID® was invented in Hastings, Nebraska, in 1927, named after a chemist

Edwin Perkins. From an early age, Perkins emitted many aromatic scents

and perfumes. This eventually led to the creation of his mail order company

as a result of the current KOOL-AID® Today KOOL-AID® is everything

America’s favorite. In addition, more KOOL-AID® has been sold in previous weeks

and in the week of July 4, than at any other time


The next time someone asks you, “Quick … what is your favorite snack?”

When you give your answer, you can also share some of them

horrible snack events.



Payment for University Athletes – Why and How to Do It


There has long been a great deal of debate about whether college athletes should be paid. Some believe that the scholarship should be enough to pay for it. After all, a scholarship can be $ 15,000 – $ 25,000 or more a year, which can also cost a million dollars a lifetime after college. In addition, student athletes receive every opportunity while in college to stay in stylish hotels, watch national television, and look at the popularity they have along with being an athlete. It’s hard to put a price on all of this.

However, considering that some college sports generate millions of dollars for college athletic programs, many people believe that they are using the sport. If the average football scholarship costs $ 20,000 a year, but the university earns $ 70,000 a year per scholarship player (keep in mind that this amount is just an estimate; the actual amount can actually be higher), the university will earn $ 50,000 a year. , a scholarship per player, or $ 200,000 over four years.

It is very difficult to put a numerical value on how much an athlete is worth. A star quarterback will not only sell tickets, he will also bring in a lot of sales. The NCCA will not allow universities to sell college football jerseys with the name of a player, but will sell a jersey with that player’s number, which can be easily spotted in local and sometimes national markets. Major schools only get huge amounts of money from sales of this kind; however, a student-athlete who is used to selling merchandise will not see a tenth of the profit. To say that a student athlete is not an athlete in this situation is underestimated.

It goes beyond that. College athletic programs from millions of television and advertising contracts. Sports facilitators also provide millions of dollars. Yes, salaries have to be paid to athletic directors and coaches, not to mention travel and other expenses for student athletes, and it’s great that the major college football and basketball programs help fund income-free athletic programs. However, the fact is that compared to the income generated by student athletes in their schools, what they receive in return is very small.

This is where it’s really interesting. There may be “discipline” in the sport by selling tickets to fans on the day of the game, however, how much money do NCAA directors earn as a result of the effort of student athletes? In fact, college athletes pay a large portion of the salaries of all people employed by the NCAA. If an NCAA executive is able to drive a Mercedes, he can appreciate a quarter of a star or go back and maybe even do some rides.

Here’s the thing: If the NCAA, coaches, and athletic directors can make a lot of money from student athletes, shouldn’t student athletes have a piece of the pie? That doesn’t mean college athletes would have to pay large sums of money, but it would certainly be nice if scholarships would pay for something extra once you go to make pizza or buy nice clothes. spending a little extra money as a way to say “thank you”.

If for some reason college athletes could afford it, that opens up a new can of worms. All the athletes on the 125-member football team do a great job in practice, but only 11 can do offense and defense. Do you pay initially? Also, if you had to pay more for a quarter star for a “good” reception, you’ll have a lot of other problems. Seeing that, the first thing you want to avoid paying with college athletes is how much money student athletes earn or are worth earning, and that’s often the case in the NFL.

The second thing you want to avoid is a different game. While some Division I institutes may be able to pay for sports, many do not bring in enough income. If a student-athlete knows that he or she can earn more at USC if he or she plays at his or her state university, the playing field becomes more erratic than it already is. Athletes would almost always choose “money school” over other schools. Technically, people now realize that this is more than that, because the schools with the most traditions, the best coaches and the best records tend to be the schools with the most money … but because a school can pay athletes more than other colleges. , the playing field would also be more uneven.

If you want to start paying athletes, all athletes must be paid the same amount of money and all schools should have the same amount of money to pay athletes, which could have been predetermined. NCAA. If this amount is as small as $ 1,000 ANNUAL, per player (a total of $ 125,000 a year paid by a college football team with 125 players) is paid monthly during the school year, it would be much more reasonable for the student. athletes … and most First Grade schools could afford it. For the few colleges that might not be able to, the NCAA could always put extra money out of the millions it generates in the cup game. It would be a 25% reduction in the salaries of every NCAA executive who has achieved rich NCAA athletics and give the athlete a difference …

Most of this article focused on college football programs. The revenue generated from basketball programs is even higher, given that teams are smaller, travel expenses are more expensive, and fewer scholarships need to be awarded, even more so the profits the NCAA makes from college basketball programs. more astonishing.